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In a few months I saved enough money to get my own apartment in the upper West Side of Manhattan and started writing articles for astrology magazines, like Horoscope Magazine, and then I was picked up to do a TV show on the public television station in NYC, Channel And that led to me being picked up by Bantam Books— and here we are today. Yes, your trilogy— would we call it a trilogy? I loved that series. Well, you know, everybody of our generation started with Margaret Hone. So that is how it started. It started with an internal revelation. Since then I have been working as an astrologer, metaphysician, teacher of these subjects and student of these subjects.

Because it was a Tibetan that came to you in vision, was that part of the reason you got into esoteric. That is very rich material. It has been hard for a lot of people to get into it…. It is hard. What I do is I teach that material. My book, Soul-Centered Astrology, was a primer into that material.

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The Tibetan asked his students to create avenues of access to the material. Since my field was astrology, I thought that I could be of service in that capacity by writing a book that would open the door to the esoteric aspect of astrology. Really, esoteric astrology is a vehicle for astrological students to advance and expand their consciousness. I owe a lot to astrology and to astrologers, and I want to give something back.

Also my teacher has been such a guide this past forty years, that his asking us to make the door available and more accessible, that was an invitation I had to accept with love and as much devotion I could muster. The Seven Rays are a central part of that, as I understand. Another part I find very interesting is the multi-level rulerships. My book, Rulers of the Horoscope is a treatise, if you will, on dispositorship and through. One thing that intrigues me most about the rulerships is that the Earth is used as a ruler. In this time we are becoming increasingly and necessarily more ecologically conscious and needing to realign ourselves with Earth and its rhythms, even as the Earth is changing.

Will you speak a bit about the Earth rulership? Of course. The orientation of the Aquarian Age is to allow each one of us to be a conscious participant in the evolution of the human species. That will take quite a while to accomplish. Nonetheless, there are many of us who are aware of the need to be unifiers, for us to be, not mediums, but mediators. Through our focus on synthesis and our focus on unity and our focus on harmony and our focus on beauty, which are all characteristics of a soul-centered human being, we can make our contributions accordingly toward this much larger vision of a consciously awakened humanity.

So the Earth as a rulership quality in the horoscope should be seen as where our dharma rests in this capacity. In other words, the Earth is always going to be degrees from the Sun. So if we look at. So basically the Earth in the natal chart shows where our dharma lies. But if a person is not conscious, in other words, if a person is living under the rays of the Moon and is dominated by their instinctual nature and their natural psychological archetype, there is no way to objectify dharma.

So this Earth rulership is only applicable to those persons who are somewhat awake. Otherwise we are lunar, you see, and not Earthy. Yes, on the level of the soul. That is personality-centered Sagittarius. But the soul-centered Sagittarius is one-pointed. The image of the centaur being half-human, half-animal has been transcended. There is no more duality. We are not running off in the direction of self-seeking hedonism that is qualified by some philosophical rationale. Instead we have embodied a universal, philosophical perspective and we travel the Earth to spread that word.

Well, Alan, you have certainly been traveling to spread that word. I have Jupiter in the ninth house! W h a t brought you to Portugal? I know you have been traveling all through the world for years now and lived in Santa Fe for many years. Now you are in Portugal. Thirty-two years in Santa Fe. Well, you know I speak Portuguese, number one. I have Jupiter in the ninth house trine to Mercury in the 5th. They are both sextile to Saturn in Gemini. I learned Portuguese when I was at university in my twenties.

Saturn in Gemini rules grammar, the structure of language: Structure, Saturn; language Gemini. So grammar comes easily. The Gemini makes me very imitative. My major was French and Italian in undergraduate work, and Spanish and Portuguese in graduate work. So I learned Portuguese at an early age. I never had a calling for Portugal until I got here as a teacher in when I was invited by the director of the Quirion School. I worked for the Quiron. The Quiron School here is what I believe is the largest astrology school in the world, not just Europe. We have over seated students, and I want to emphasize seated.

Every year when we graduate people from the seventh year, there are at least students coming into the first year.

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I teach in Portuguese, yes. I am the director of the sixth year of the school, which is devoted to esoteric astrology. Quiron is the Portuguese word for Chiron. We also do other things with other astrologers. We put on weekend workshops and other forms of programs. There is no formal organization up there.

And we go down to Faro in the south of Portugal, where there is another group but not a formal institute. Yesterday I attended a workshop which a friend of mine gave and there were 30 people there. At my Friday night workshop there are 60 people enrolled in my course. There are over in the seven-year program, and there are about 70 in my esoteric group here. The country has ten million people. If you were to apportion that number to the United States you could see that the interest in astrology, the serious interest in astrology is very high.

The fact that people would pay for astrology courses and workshops and go to a sevenyear program in astrology, and that there are over of these people in any given year just in that one school alone in such a small country…. You can see that the interest in astrology and in things esoteric here in. Portugal is extremely profound. I want to emphasize the word profound. Because the Portuguese are not rich people, so they apportion their money cheerfully to what they want to do and then they are very interested in it.

They attend their classes. And then number two, they are not form conscious in a superficial sense. They are very mystical people with very profound feelings. They take their time. And once they do they embrace it they give themselves to it. It is also true with people in relationships as well. That is one of the reasons I am here. The quality of interpersonal relationships is very sincere and very profound and incredibly nurturing, and it allows me to be nurturing, which is important for me.

Portugal is very definitely a Pisces with Cancer rising. And the natal Sun of Portugal is conjunct my Venus in Pisces. Need I say more? And my natal Venus in Pisces in Portugal rises in my chart, in my Portuguese relocation chart and my Moon is in the fourth house in this country. Because of the language compatibility, is there any interaction between Portugal and Brazil in the astrology world? There is, but not as much as one would imagine. So they are mutually understandable.

But, for example, books written in continental Portuguese, if they are published in Brazil, are first translated into Brazilian. When I learned Portuguese, I learned Brazilian. The accent is so different. Yes, it is that kind of difference. As I said, I learned Brazilian Portuguese first. I started coming here in as a teacher and I moved here for a year and a half in into Their accent is so different. And where do you see it heading? What are some of your visions for our larger world of astrology? I see the astrological community deepening. Beautiful incredible books are being written now, that are really superb.

There is a small group—I may be wrong, but to me in terms of numbers—there is a small group between 35 year olds and 55 year olds. There are still a lot of us around, thank God. Then you have just a very few between 35 and And now you have this young group coming up that are splendid, just wonderful people —and quality people.

So I am very happy.

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I feel the future of astrology is well grounded now in the young people. There are number of us who have taken on some younger students and are training them. I know for myself I have a student in Paris and another student here who are especially strong. I know what I am sharing with them they are going to keep and take into the future.

So in terms of the next generation coming up as astrologers, it is assured. I was really nervous there for a while. But now I see these young ones coming up and it really gives me a sense of confidence that we have someone to pass our legacy on to. The other part is: As a community, ISAR has done this incredible job of really solidifying the focus of the international astrological community. Job well done! I want to say that about my colleagues.

You are part of it now, Alan. You are our representative Vice President in Portugal. Not a shot fired, nobody was hurt. People like Maria Flavia, who was a highly educated free thinker in exile in France, came back to Portugal right after that. She brought astrology with her. She is the mother of Portuguese astrology, no doubt about it. We are bringing a contingent of people from Quiron with us. There are some young English speaking astrologers here who can help in that respect. That is really wonderful. That is why we have these gatherings and why ISAR really does tries to bring a global representation into astrology when we do such things.

It is working, it really is working. In esoteric astrology, we see three main levels of consciousness. The first is tribal, or instinctive, lunar consciousness. The second is what I would call exoteric solar consciousness, in other words, an individualized. Then the third stage we could call the group conscious Sun, that is the human being that now is so self creative, that it no longer has to remain within the boundaries of its own ego and can truly really give itself to group work without being threatened.

And what is so difficult is that the polarity of the Sun is Uranus. Uranus is known as the Father of Archetypes. The Aquarian Age is the Leo-Aquarius Age, so the great battle, the great struggle is: how do we have so many individuated astrologers, astrologers are so Uranian, you know, and we all get so individuated that we have our own systems and our own approaches and our own schools and our own this and our own that. That is in conflict, in many cases, with contributing to a larger global harmonious community of brother and sister astrologers.

That would be a particularly urgent evolutionary challenge for people with Pluto in Leo. It is that. It is very difficult to do K. And that is the whole point of what I have just been saying. If anybody knows me they know I have Jupiter in Leo trine the. The little self can be any way it wants to be. The main thing is the awareness to, and if I might say the devotion to, and the embrace of the larger Self. The larger Self for us are the goals of ISAR at this particular time in terms of creating this astrological global community.

Leo is the only sign in the zodiac that is ruled on all three levels of personality, soul and spirit by the one Sun, but it is three dynamics of solar activity. One is the central spiritual Sun which casts no shadow. Then you have the Sun that is the personality Sun, our own little sun that casts lots and lots of shadows. The way that is done is through Uranus and Aquarius. That personality Sun is polarized to a personality Uranus, so what happens is you become eccentric. The second way is Uranus on the soul level to the second level of the Sun, which is the heart of the Sun, and you become individuated as a self-realized co- creator of your life.

The third way is that you identify with the Sun, with the Christ principle. Being Christian has nothing to do with it. Have you any thoughts on that? There is a dictum in the ancient wisdom teachings that says that nothing occurs in one end of the universe without its eventual reverberation at the other end of the universe. I do know that everything is interconnected to everything else. It is certainly stimulating to the imagination.

Our science is one of images and imagination and intuition. Let me pause for a few seconds and think about that… In order to be effective as a group—because ISAR is a group of individuals and a group of groups, and therefore it is the quintessential Aquarian age structure—in order to be able to be effective, one has to develop the type of Uranian objectivity to the energies that work within oneself and within others. Non-judgmentally, of course.

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We have to work with loving detachment— to keep just one toe out of the bath tub of the astral waters of illusion and selfaggrandizement— so that we can simply see and 28 - ISAR International Astrologer. And then what we are to contribute and the way we are to contribute it, that will come though, it will be shown. In any event, what I want to say is I wish everyone in ISAR a very conscious and I look forward to seeing as many of you as possible in May, Thank you, Kelley, this is a wonderful opportunity to share with the community and I am really appreciative.

Interested in astrology since , Kelley is now astrologer and stargazer-in-residence for the Self Center at Caneel Bay resort and the Omega Institute programs in the Caribbean. Encyclopedically complete and amazingly simple to use, Solar Fire 6 Deluxe provides the serious astrologer with authoritative, in-depth coverage of astrological techniques. Plus a truly extraorharmonics, sidereal, helio and dinary range of prenatal charts. Learn Solar Fire by oids, stars, timed celebrity browsing its simple, charts. Plus natal, synastry, transit- logical menus. If you ing and progressed interpretations.

Besides tracking appointments and billing hours, it lets you do your whole reading from the screen, instantly generating the info you need to answer whatever a client throws at you. And then it records your readings to send by email. Plus—besides all the standard calculations—it offers the most complete, imaginative and in-depth array of dials and symmetrical astrology tools anywhere.

The result? Insights beyond the conventional Western chart! And here it is. Pluto strikes again! Right out of college, Ellen applied for her first job by walking in off of the street and leaving a resume with the Human Resources Department of a company. It is an extremely conservative industry.

The industry was looking to have more women represented in its ranks. Apparently, however, she was chosen to represent all women because the rest of her colleagues in the firm were men. She has a Pisces Sun and Moon conjoined in the 11th house. Her 0 degree Taurus Ascendant-Scorpio Descendant relates to 2nd house 8th house themes.

She has a dignified Mars in Aries at 27 degrees in the Gauquelin power zone just above her. Corporate Capricorn is on her 10th house cusp with Venus conjoined just inside. As dreamy, intuitive, creative and imaginative a double Pisces can be, the other influences in her chart create the right mix for her to be successful in the insurance industry. The day is September 2, , at AM. Natal Saturn rules her 10th house of career. This transit Pluto is opposing her progressed Mars. The transiting conjunction of Neptune and Uranus at 18 degrees Capricorn is conjunct her MC and natal Venus, and are opposed by her natal Jupiter-Uranus conjunction in Cancer.

The IC of her chart has the transit MC on the cusp. Was something significant ready to happen? Well its 17 years later and times have changed. Ellen is devastated. It is a brutal experience for her. As a single woman, this is tantamount to having the financial rug pulled out from underneath her feet. She also feels very angry and burned out. To conserve money, she moves back with family. During the next few years she takes the steps needed to rebuild her life, ultimately using those creative talents that were always part of her being. Pisces Sun and Moon, Venus in the 10th and perhaps the N.

Node of the Moon in Capricorn the 9th figures into this story. She now has the means to rebuild her life. You see, as a SunMoon Pisces, Ellen has had another life quite separate from her corporate existence. In her early twenties, she moved to Park Slope, Brooklyn, and during Uranus trine Uranus, Ellen enrolled in a class taught by Donna Cunningham who was living in the neighborhood.

She also studied Tarot and explored psychic development with Alex Murray, a trance medium. Later Ellen moved to Hartford, CT, and remained active in the astrology community there. She was a regular at the Northampton Psychic fair for a few years doing astrology and Tarot. So in , with her college certification in computer graphics and her metaphysical background, Ellen opens the doors to a new chapter in her life.

She especially knows how to cater to corporate clients. It is intense work but Ellen now has unleashed her creativity. Her 11th house Sun and Moon enjoy the freedom and this new exciting career.


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Pluto is finishing the transit of her 7th house but Ellen, the astrologer, is full of anxiety about the upcoming early Pluto square in Sagittarius, from her 8th house cusp to her 2 and 3 degree Pisces Moon and Sun. Would she be a rape victim? Would she get breast cancer? Would her father die? Ellen cringed as the Pluto transit came and went. What DID she experience? The anger she had been feeling towards the management at her reinsurance employer who had treated her so poorly left peacefully. She could just let it go.

She was changed and free. It was an exhilarating feeling. I would think that her Venus in Capricorn appreciates professional affiliations. That concludes another life changing Pluto transit tale. If you would like to share your transit tale with us, email me at Mambroz aol. You can go to press anonymous or with your name included. Bye for now. ISAR and C. NCGR certified astrologer. She has a consulting practice, teaches, writes and has lectured internationally.

Major Mundane Trends in By R. Hakan Kirkoglu DFAstrolS Political skill is the ability to foretell what is going to happen tomorrow, next week, next month and next year. Winston Churchill As a first step to gain a broader view, it would be better to look at the planetary index based on planetary pairs between Jupiter to Pluto Chiron excluded. An upward direction of the index corresponds to times of increased optimism, growth and accumulation of new ideas while a downward direction, especially sharp ones, indicates much chaos, times in turmoil and a tendency for wars.

General trend of this index has been in downward direction since September and had sharp declines after September Throughout we still come across a downward trend, and the second. To be more precise, the index reveals that after September mundane affairs would be in dire circumstances. We are going to look at this period more in detail with ingress charts. Before Saturn enters Virgo The year can be interpreted in two main parts, the period before Saturn enters Virgo and after. In terms of 8th harmonic, hard aspects, we will be witnessing a Jupiter-Uranus waxing square, both of them in Jupiter related signs end of January, the first half of May and the first week of October while the Saturn-Neptune opposition will be at its maximum effect, in the last days of February.

That aspect will ease after the end of June. The square between Jupiter and Uranus, being in mutable signs, portrays a period of change, endings and reversals in the collective. Jupiter in his own sign brings issues about justice and rightness, strong faith in our world view and themes related with religious concerns. When Jupiter collides with Uranus things get often excited, more optimistic about future and political atmosphere warmed up with new horizons. However, it is interesting to note that both Sagitarrius and Pisces being mutable signs, are not always able to push forward their own agendas alone and such excited feelings about future possibilities might not achieve their original aspirations.

Nevertheless, it is a evident fact that especially after Saturn enters Virgo, the number of slower moving planets in mutable signs will be notably increased providing a big push for more flexible solutions in mundane matters. Hence the ongoing square between these planets seems to reflect finding new ways and challenges to sort out the current situation in Iraq with a strong motivation in the public opinion opting for justice and fair politics.

Indeed, the first square at 12 degrees 25 has activated the natal Asc public voice and attitude of USA chart,. Reinhold Ebertin3 gives these delineations for this combination: An unusual striving for knowledge and understanding, a strong awareness of purpose or of objective in life. When the Jupiter — Uranus square sets loose after October 9th, Saturn will have already entered Virgo bringing up a new period where all the above mentioned tensions of this process, e. During writing this article, the news about G. It seems that Jupiter-Uranus square could be related with the consequences of this change of policies.

This sequence of midpoints give us the clues that the Jupiter-Uranus square may suggest that public opinion regarding justice and fair politics will set the agenda for the coming month in the USA psyche. The Saturn — Neptune opposition which has been active since last August reflects the persistent problems and stuck situation regarding 3rd and 9th house matters. Transiting Saturn in the 9th since Summer requires being more realistic and down-to-earth in terms of foreign politics and international issues. The presidential elections in France will be held May 6, the second round of voting.

Sag rising Ingress charts and Russia It is interesting to note that the three ingress charts for Aries, Cancer and Libra calculated for Moscow, Russia give Sagittarius rising. In the first two of them the Asc is conjunct with Pluto and Saturn in the 9th house. The current solar return chart also shows Pisces rising Jupiter in the Sag 10th house. Jupiter, being in the 2nd house of the natal chart, indicates that. It could be conceivable to ascertain that new trends in the international arena would bring major adjustments and the rise of new areas of conflicts, especially in areas where Russia has neighboorhood, most notably in the Middle East and Iraq.

The rapid declining trend in the planetary index beginning in August may well seem to correlate with this rising inconsistent and complex situation which might bring out military confrontations. This is the chart of this crucial moment. Virgo rising while peregrine Mercury is in Cancer conjunct with a Saturn in detriment in the 11th house.

The Sun in partile trine with Uranus in the 7th house of partnership and conflicts clearly supports the case for outside influences while Jupiter which is also the ruler of the 7th and 4th houses land, internal security and domestic affairs is posited in the 1st house further emphasizing the mutual relationship with allied forces, namely USA and UK. The Moon people is quite harmed by a conjunction with south node of the moon in a cadent house and being in her fall in Scorpio. Pluto in Sag in the 4th house reveals the forces at its foundation, a traumatic ending and beginning by external international forces.

When the Solar return Moon is besieged by Mars and Saturn, two malefics, the morale of the people and their safety are expected to be in great peril. In starting from June 28th , profected Asc shifted to Scorpio where Moon and south node are situated and Mars became the lord of the year. Chart below. Please note that natal Mars is posited in the 12th house of secret enemies and forces beyond control. This has been the period when terror reigned and civil war apparently began between religious sects, namely Sunnis and Shiites.

If we look at hand-overs for the profections, Asc hands over to Mars, MC to the Moon, Sun to Mercury, Moon to Mercury and the part of fortune to Jupiter and we can use handing over in Solar Return chart for further delineation. The Solar return chart for has an Aquarius ascendant and Saturn which can be interpreted as the conditions of people as Moon hands over to Saturn is in detriment in the 7th house conjunct with Moon and Mars indicates that Iraqi people are much very harmed by conflicts and war.

Working on the same solar return chart, we may assume that current conditions can lead to set a new equilibrium where government would be more in power and established to launch new initiatives in Iraq when transiting Sun enters Aquarius in the end of January Starting from the end of March, we are going to able to see the effects of Solar return which will be operative 3 months before of its actual date.

Natal Jupiter in the first house of Virgo. As Gemini has a dual nature and Mercury in a mute sign, it seems that surrounding conditions will present dilemmas and much inconsistency due to the religious sects. Securing economic assets of the country will be high on the agenda as well and the profected Asc in the fourth house reminds us that resources of the land, e. As the 4th house is a pivotal place in the chart, can be expected to be a year of new conditions and a starting point. Jupiter rules both the 10th and 7th signs. This may imply that goverment is strongly attached to the relations with foreign powers, and international issues would play important role in diplomacy.

The presence of Jupiter and the Part of Fortune along with the Moon can. Although the Moon is well with greater benefic Jupiter, and forms a trine with the lesser benefic Venus, it also makes a partile square aspect to Uranus in Pisces disposed by Jupiter and Sun and Moon in profection, hand over to Venus and Saturn which are both conjunct in Leo in a cadent 3rd house. MC also hands over to the Sun. Hence the power of government and ability to exercise its influence seem to be quite weak and ineffective Sun in Cancer is peregrine.

Furthermore, as the Moon hands over to a cadent Saturn Saturn is in detriment in Leo , the conditions of the Iraqi people can be shadowed by controls and regulations although they get some economic benefits and support through international powers. In addition to that, Venus being also in close opposition to Neptune in the 9th house, may indicate disapointments in this stuck process. These tensions would be more appearent between July and September when Sun transits the signs of Leo and Virgo.

Hakan Kirkoglu has been a leading figure of Astrology in Turkey as a consultant, teacher and writer. He worked in the Treasury, Research and Correspondent Banking departments in the banking industry between and and shifted to full time astrology in the year Writing the first Turkish psychological astrology book in Astroloji Zamanlari , Hakan is also a prize winner from the Faculty of Astrological Studies in gaining his Diploma with the Cordelia Mansall Veritas Award.

He also pioneered the establishment of Astrological Association in Turkey Astrobil in Note: Whole sign houses are used in all charts. His interest in astrology has developed into studying of classical texts and techniques since emphasizing the need for a deeper understanding of Astrology in terms of ancient knowledge.

Morin and more recently, C. Zain in his book Weather Prediction. In brief, the ideas that Zain puts forth includes the examination of seasonal Solar ingress charts and four lunar phases, new, full and quarters. The 4th and 1st houses, their ruling sign and planets are analyzed and blended to develop a weather forecast. After following the basic rules of forecasting weather for several years, I have discovered that a more accurate forecast can be achieved when transits to a located chart of a state, country or region are included in the analysis. A geographical location chart is a well timed horoscope birth chart for an entire country, a state, or region.

In the case of England; it is a coronation chart which has proved its worth. In general, this type of chart will have angular cusps which are sensitive to transiting planets. The study of transits to a geographical location chart is a powerful technique that enables the astrometeorologist to create a more accurate long range extreme weather forecast.

Finding such a chart is not always an easy task. The list of dramatic weather events in the state of Rhode Island that follows and the transits to the location chart demonstrates the point of this article. Dramatic weather is common in Florida, and a chart for Florida when it became a state has also been tested fig 2.

Weather forecasts can be created without the aid of a located chart. However, the additional information derived from the locational chart has more than once been the deciding factor for the final forecast. In order for a birth chart, the locational chart, to be of value in forecasting the weather for a country, a state or a region, the angles the cusps of houses 1, 4, 7, and 10 must be sensitive to major transits at the time of a strong weather event.

Natal planets found close to the angular house cusps from either side will be sensitive as well. The table of transit hits for the Rhode Island storms demonstrates this nicely. The Founding of Newport, RI chart has only one planet, Uranus, which is close to an angle, the 4th house cusp. Uranus scored very high in the hurricane transit hits. The rulers of houses 1 and 4 also scored high. The intensity of a weather event should reflect the number of and harshness of the planets transiting the angles and planets.

In fact, as an aside, once the art of weather forecasting is learned, one can use the weather terminology in the specified 1st and 4th houses in your own natal birth chart with surprising and revealing results! After a chart such as the one demonstrated in this article, the Founding of Newport, RI has been observed and is workable; the area of land it covers will vary due to the terrain. Connecticut and Massachusetts, all three states having the same climate and vulnerability. In larger states such as Texas and California, working with more than one chart may be necessary. If we imagine rewinding the expansion of the universe back in time, the galaxies we see all seem to converge on a single infinitesimal point: the big bang singularity.

This moment is sometimes sold as the beginning of the universe, the birth of matter, space and time. Such an interpretation, however, goes too far, because the infinite values indicate that general relativity itself breaks down. To explain what really happened at the big bang, physicists must transcend relativity. We must develop a theory of quantum gravity, which would capture the fine structure of spacetime to which relativity is blind. The details of that structure came into play under the dense conditions of the primordial universe, and traces of it may survive in the present-day arrangement of matter and radiation.

In short, if spacetime atoms exist, it will not take centuries to find the evidence, as it did for material atoms. With some luck, we may know within the coming decade. Pieces of Space Physicists have devised several candidate theories of quantum gravity, each applying quantum principles to general relativity in a distinct way. Second, following innovative procedures, some that are akin to the mathematics of knots, they applied quantum principles to the loops. The differences among these theories have given rise to controversy, but to my mind the theories are not contradictory so much as complementary.

String theory, for example, is very useful for a unified view of particle interactions, including gravity when it is weak.


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For the purpose of disentangling what happens at the singularity, where gravity is strong, the atomic constructions of loop gravity are more useful. It is an actor in its own right. It not only determines the motion of bodies within the universe, but it evolves. A complicated interplay between matter and spacetime ensues. Space can grow and shrink. Loop gravity extends this insight into the quantum realm. It takes our familiar understanding of particles of matter and applies it to the atoms of space and time, providing a unified view of our most basic concepts. For instance, the quantum theory of electromagnetism describes a vacuum devoid of particles such as photons, and each increment of energy added to this vacuum generates a new particle.

In the quantum theory of gravity, a vacuum is the absence of spacetime—an emptiness so thorough we can scarcely imagine it. Loop gravity describes how each increment of energy added to this vacuum generates a new atom of spacetime. The spacetime atoms form a dense, ever shifting mesh. Over large distances, their dynamism gives rise to the evolving universe of classical general relativity. Under ordinary conditions, we never notice the existence of these spacetime atoms; the mesh spacing is so tight that it looks like a continuum.

But when spacetime is packed with energy, as it was at the big bang, the fine structure of spacetime becomes a factor, and the predictions of loop gravity diverge from those of general relativity. Attracted to Repulsion Applying the theory is an extremely complex task, so my colleagues and I use simplified versions that capture the truly essential features of the universe, such as its size, and ignore details of lesser interest.

We have also had to adapt many of the standard mathematical tools of physics and cosmology. For instance, theoretical physicists commonly describe the world using differential equations, which specify the rate of change of physical variables, such as density, at each point in the spacetime continuum. But when spacetime is grainy, we instead use so-called difference equations, which break up the continuum into discrete intervals.

These equations describe how a universe climbs up the ladder of sizes that it is allowed to take as it grows. When I set out to analyze the cosmological implications of loop gravity in , most researchers expected that these difference equations would simply reproduce old results in disguise. But unexpected features soon emerged.

Gravity is typically an attractive force. A ball of matter tends to collapse under its own weight, and if its mass is sufficiently large, gravity overpowers all other forces and compresses the ball into a singularity, such as the one at the center of a black hole. But loop gravity suggests that the atomic structure of spacetime changes the nature of gravity at very high energy densities, making it repulsive.

Imagine space as a sponge and mass and energy as water. The porous sponge can store water but only up to a certain amount. Fully soaked, it can absorb no more and instead repels water. Similarly, an atomic quantum space is porous and has a finite amount of storage space for energy. When energy densities become too large, repulsive forces come into play. The continuous space of general relativity, in contrast, can store a limitless amount of energy.

Because of the quantum-gravitational change in the balance of forces, no singularity—no state of infinite density—can ever arise. According to this model, matter in the early universe had a very high but finite density, the equivalent of a trillion suns in every proton-size region. At such extremes, gravity acted as a repulsive force, causing space to expand; as densities moderated, gravity switched to being the attractive force we all know. Inertia has kept the expansion going to the present day. In fact, the repulsive gravity caused space to expand at an accelerating rate.

Cosmological observations appear to require such an early period of acceleration, known as cosmic inflation. As the universe expands, the force driving inflation slowly subsides. Once the acceleration ends, surplus energy is transferred to ordinary matter, which begins to fill the universe in a process called reheating. In current models, inflation is somewhat ad hoc—added in to conform to observations—but in loop quantum cosmology, it is a natural consequence of the atomic nature of spacetime.

Acceleration automatically occurs when the universe is small and its porous nature still quite significant. Time before Time Without a singularity to demarcate the beginning of time, the history of the universe may extend further back than cosmologists once thought possible. Loop gravity, in contrast, is able to trace what took place at the singularity. Loop-based scenarios, though admittedly simplified, are founded on general principles and avoid introducing new ad hoc assumptions. Using the difference equations, we can try to reconstruct the deep past.

One possible scenario is that the initial high-density state arose when a preexisting universe collapsed under the attractive force of gravity. The density grew so high that gravity switched to being repulsive, and the universe started expanding again. Cosmologists refer to this process as a bounce.

The first bounce model investigated thoroughly was an idealized case in which the universe was highly symmetrical and contained just one type of matter. Particles had no mass and did not interact with one another. Simplified though this model was, understanding it initially required a set of numerical simulations that were completed only in by Abhay Ashtekar, Tomasz Pawlowski and Parampreet Singh, all at Pennsylvania State University.

I designated the day Mercury stationed on both ends of the period as retrograde. I then tabulated the findings and determined the average tickets per day that were not worked by 11 p. I also deleted any days for which no data was collected. The Mercury retrograde shadow period was not examined for the purposes of this brief study. The data was collected from July through January and included four complete Mercury retrograde periods and one partial one — the extent of the data available. The results of this study appear to support the thesis that Mercury retrograde disrupts communications.

Last edited by lillyjgc; at AM. Of course, it doesn't really move backwards, but only appears to do so from our point of view here on earth. If a person was born the day of a Venus station, about to turn retrograde, it means that they will experience the Venus Retrograde in their Progressed chart for the first years of their life. Courtesy Erin Sullivan Venus and every other planet is said to work in an internal way, and Venus in retrograde mode indicates that love and sensuality may not be expressed in an appropriate external way.

Venus retrograde can result in people sometimes feeling poor at an emotional level and feeling that they are incapable of love or may find it hard to express their love to others. This can make them appear selfish. Through retrograde Venus people try to find the perfection in love, art and study. They can feel inner love but can't express it in the best way. Having a Venus retrograde in the Natal chart can cause some people to have problems receiving love. As a result they may find it easier to be independent in their close relationships.

Sometimes those with Retrograde Venus may express even aggressive or possessive attitudes to others or it could indicate a person who cannot handle a divorce in an appropriate way, so they can't leave abandon the relationship. They like to have the control of their partner. This can be made worse if Venus is afflicted in the chart by house placement and aspects. Conversely, a dignified Venus may not be as difficult if it strongly placed by sign and house and not afflicted by hard aspects.

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People with Venus Retrograde, natally, may find they have problems with emotional frustration and other times loss of self-control. This internal confusion can block the person from reaching emotional maturity. This pressure also could appear at a financial level where it can cause delays in regard to financial expectations. Venus naturally rules Houses seven and two in astrology. House 7 relates to our significant others and House two deals with our material well being, and our self worth. When Venus goes direct after retrogression, it is a time for re-evaluation in life as Venus operates at very deep levels and needs time to close all the unfinished processes.

Chaotic emotions and insecurity could be noticed , even unusual attitudes to others may be a theme, until the Native establishes their new values reflecting what they have learned and what they face now. Initially they may resist the need to change their values and move on from what they have learnt and experienced.

They may feel emotionally isolated because of the confusion they feel. Releasing the old ways of dealing with relationships and money could be very liberating as they start to express their feelings and establish new exterior values. They feel free to go on direct in their lives in a different way direction. Retrograde Venus can be associated with death. Astrologer Erin Sullivan points out in her excellent "Retrograde Planets" Penguin Books that "the Aztecs saw Venus retrograde as a goddess assuming the guise of a man who walked the Earth for 40 days and 40 nights.

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